1/ ling means linen. n/g can swap, so ling ≈ lign: align, line (a linen string forms a line). More swaps: per↔pre, por↔pro, wer↔wre.
2/ ling ≈ lang ≈ long (b/c a string is long), origin for tongue (t/l swap) and language (b/c you speak a language w/ a long tongue).
3/ Another reason ling derived language is the word linguistics. Also, long ≈ leng (length). A+long=along, and be+long=belong.
4/ lig means “bind (w/ a string).” ob (towards) + lig = oblige/obligation. Also root of religion (re = repeatedly, bind your heart to god).
5/ lig ≈ li ≈ ly, meaning went from “bind” to “responsible”: liable, rely, ally, liaison (= close relationship).
6/ co (together) + ally = coalition (political allies). Also, lig ≈ log ≈ loy, so alloy (bind metals), loyal ≈ legal. lig also dervied league.